Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon and its compounds. These compounds are called organic molecules.

Organic molecules constitute the chemical bricks of life. Fats, sugars, proteins, and the nucleic acids are compounds in which the principal component is carbon. So are countless substances that we take for granted in everyday use. All the clothes that we wear, toothbrushes, toothpaste, soaps, shampoos, deodorants, perfumes, contain organic compounds


Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1807 coined the term “organic chemistry” for the study of compounds derived from natural sources. It was believed inorganic compounds could be synthesized in the laboratory, but organic compounds could not, at least not from inorganic materials. In 1828 Friedrich Wöhler,obseved one transformation in which an inorganic salt, amonium cyanate, was converted to urea, a known organic sustance earlier isolated from urine.

This web begin with the alkanes, organic compounds composed of only hydrogen and carbon and lacking functional groups. We discuss the systematic rules for naming them, their structures, and their physical properties. We shall then study the cycloalkanes which contain carbon atoms in a ring. Experimental evidence indicating that six-membered rings are nonplanar. The most stable conformation of cyclohexane is the chair conformation. The Stereochemistry study compounds that have the same constitution but differ in the spatial arrangement of their atoms. We shall then study substitution and elimination reations. In a substitution reaction, one halogen atom may be replaced by another group; in an elimination reaction, adjacent atoms may be removed from a molecule to generate a double bond. This web continues with the chemistry of alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes and ketones, benzene, carboxilic acid, acyl halides, anhydrides, esters, amides, nitriles, amines, carbohydrates, amino acid.


This web deals with about 100 of the most important reactions in organic chemistry; the selection is based on their importance for modern preparative organic chemistry. The reactions are arranged in alphabetical order.

Organic synthesis is a very important part of organic chemistry. More than 10 million organic substances have been synthesized from simpler materials, both organic and inorganic. The goal of synthesis is to construct complex organic chemicals from simpler, more readily available ones. To be able to convert one molecule into another,chemists must know organic reactions